When it comes to natural resources, Africa is considered extremely rich as it accounts for more than 30 per cent of the world's mineral resources, which includes gold, diamonds, gemstone, and oil. Namibia is known for uranium, Congo is known for copper, Botswana is known for diamonds, and more, yet they are still “poor”. The Central African Republic has consistently been ranked as the poorest country in the world, the lowest on the Human Development Index (HDI) and the unhealthiest in the world for many years.
Economic insecurity, political instability, corruption, and civil war terrorist instructions have left millions of African living in abject poverty.
Africa is considered the poorest continent on earth. Almost everyone living in the states of sub-Saharan Africa lives below the poverty line, particularly affected by poverty in Africa are the weakest members of the society.
Poverty Causes in Africa
One of the main reasons why Africa is not developed is the poor infrastructure. This is major because of neglect from African leaders over the past decades with the cases of corruption and embezzlement of funds. No roads, wells, irrigation systems, storage facilities, and agricultural machinery. Many regions of Africa lack both infrastructure and expertise.
Growth of Population
Population growth in Africa continents rapid, despite the numerous prevention and education campaigns. Development and success and economic growth can not pace with this. Many more Africans live in poverty. According to UNICEF, the population of Africa will double by 2050 to two billion people
War and Crises
The world's 20 war-related conflicts in 2013. Due to war and crises in most of the African countries, many flee, and some are forcibly expelled from their homes and are dependent on outside help, Agricultural production usually comes to a standby, 11 alone were fought on the African continent in sub-Saharan African, this includes the wars in Sudan and South Sudan, Mali, Somalia, Nigeria, Democratic Republic of Congo and the Central African Republic. Poverty in Africa is increasing as a result of these wars.
Political instability has become endemic to sub-Saharan Africa. In the early 1960s when most African countries began achieving independence, more than fifty coups took place in the African continent. This rise in political decay has significantly affected the economic development and growth of the African countries.
Diseases such as aids, malaria, and Ebola are one of the causes but also the result of poverty in Africa, Aids has become an epidemic illness facing sub-Saharan Africa. Inadequate medical care in many regions means that diseases spread faster and cannot be treated. The average life expectancy of the population is decreasing and the number of orphans is increasing. Also, loss of labour is particularly noticeable in agriculture and this leads to reduced food production.
Corruption is hindering the economic, political and social development of Africa. Corruption is a major barrier to economic growth, good governance and basic freedom such as freedom of speech, and the right to hold governments to account. Corruption has affected the well-being of individuals, families and communities.
The African continent has been suffering more and more from climate change in recent decades, devastating floods and extraordinary droughts lead to crop failure. The consequences are regular hunger cases and famine in Africa.
Solutions to Poverty in Africa
● increase access to quality education
● Improve food security and access to clean water
● End war and conflicts
● Embrace cash and microfinance
● Economic security
● Diversify into manufacturing and other huge production sectors
● Ensure basic health care
● Improve childhood nutrition
● Support environmental programs
● Prevent child marriage
● Support environmental programs.
● Gender equality
● Boosting the productivity of farmer
● Access to health care
In summary, to reduce poverty policies could include means-tested, welfare benefits for the poorest in the society, for example, unemployment benefits, food stamps, income support and housing benefits. Minimum Wages, regulation of labour markets for example statutory minimum wages.